Exercise 2 练习2

Transcribe the recordings in IPA. 请用国际音标转写录音中的内容。


Round 1 第1轮: 

Listen to the words modelled on the phonetic sound types found in Dyirbal (an aboriginal language of Australia). These utterances use three Cardinal  Vowels: pCV1 [i], pCV5 [ɑ], and pCV8 [u]. Take down the utterances in phonetic transcription (using square brackets). 在本轮录音中,你将听到的是澳大利亚土著语言Dyirbal语的单词发音。请用国际音标记音,并将记音放在方括号内。记音中的元音,请选用主要标准元音1号[i]、5号[ɑ]和8号[u]。


Round 2 第2轮: 

Listen to the words modelled on the phonetic sound types found in German. These utterances use three Cardinal  Vowels, i.e. pCV1 [i],  pCV5 [ɑ], and pCV8 [u], and schwa [ə] and [ɪ] (as in the English word sit). Also listen out for two new consonant sounds: the voiceless palatal fricative [çɑ], [ɑçɑ] – rather like the sound you hear at the beginning of the English words huge and humour – and the voiceless uvular fricative [χɑ], [ɑχɑ] – somewhat noisier than the [x] at the end of the Scottish word loch. 本轮录音中,你将听到的是德语单词的发音,请用国际音标记音。记音中的元音,请使用主要标准元音1号[i]、5号[ɑ]和8号[u]以及中央元音[ə]和中央化元音[ɪ](如英语sit中的元音)。另外请注意两个新的辅音:硬腭清擦音[ç]和小舌轻擦音[χ],前者如英语huge、humour的词首辅音,后者如苏格兰语loch“湖”的词末辅音。


Round 3 第3轮: 

Listen to the words modelled on the general phonetic sound types found in the southern pronunciation of Dutch. In Round 2 you will have heard  the German voiceless uvular fricative [χɑ, ɑχɑ]. Southern Dutch often uses the rather softer sounding velar articulation, the voiceless velar fricative [xɑ], [ɑxɑ] – again, like the Scottish word loch. Listen out for this sound in the utterances, which use the same three Cardinal  Vowels – but note that Dutch, like German, also has a schwa! 本轮录音中,你将听到的是荷兰语单词的发音。请用国际音标记音。请注意:与上一轮中德语的小舌轻擦音[χ]不同,南部荷兰语通常使用听上去更“软”的软腭发音,即软腭轻擦音[x],也就是苏格兰语loch中的尾辅音。本轮录音中的基本元音与上一轮相同,另外请注意,荷兰语和德语一样也有中央元音!


Round 4 第4轮: 

Listen to the words modelled on the general phonetic sound types found in the pronunciation of Spanish. These items will also use three vowel sounds, but the open vowel will now have a more front quality, like pCV4 [a]. Spanish also has two different r-sounds: one is the short, voiced alveolar tap [ɾ]. Listen out for this new sound! 本轮录音中,你将听到的是西班牙语单词的发音。这些词仍然使用三个基本元音,但其中的开口元音更加偏前,接近4号基本元音[a]。另外,西班牙语有两个r音,其中一个是短促的齿龈浊拍音[ɾ],请注意听这个新的发音。